Macro Lenses photography techniques
The time period photograph-macrograph was proposed in 1899 by W. H. Walmsley for shut-up photos with lower than 10 diameters magnification, to tell apart from true picture-micrographs.
All the foremost digital camera and lens producers make specialist macro lenses (versus lenses with a detailed-focus facility), that are designed to provide their finest efficiency when used near a topic (although they can even give glorious outcomes when used for “regular” pictures as effectively). They’re typically out there in three focal lengths: customary (e.g., fifty five mm and 60 mm), brief telephoto (e.g., ninety mm and one zero five mm), and telephoto (e.g., 200 mm), in addition to zooms such because the Micro-Nikkor 70–a hundred and eighty mm. Many have a ample constructed-in extension to present a life-measurement magnification. Numerous specialist macro lenses have been obtainable over time, notably quick-focus lenses to be hooked up to the tip of bellows models. They typically could be discovered secondhand, and may give very good outcomes. Nikon used to make a one hundred and five mm f/four quick-mount lens that was mounted onto a bellows unit; it’s a lot wanted these days. I’ve an historical Leitz Summar 12 cm lens that I connect to a Nikon bellows through an adapter, and it provides excellent photos.
Canon MP-E65 Macro Lens
This distinctive lens is a handbook-focus macro lens, designed just for magnifications between 1× and 5×, with out using any further equipment. It achieves this exceptional vary by having a constructed-in extendable extension tube. It’s a tough lens to grasp—at 1× it’s a hundred mm (four in.) away from the topic and at 5× it’s simply forty mm (1.6 in.) away, leaving little room for artistic lighting. The lens extends from round one hundred mm (four in.) at 1× to round 230 mm (9 in.) at 5×. There is no such thing as a focusing ring; to make use of the lens you might want to preset the magnification required, then transfer the entire digicam/ lens meeting till focus is achieved. It will in all probability require some form of focusing rail to realize the minute motion required. The lens may even be used for some specimens mounted as microscope slides. Depth of area (DOF) at these excessive magnifications may be very small, and will likely be mentioned later on this chapter, however a few examples are proven right here as an example the issue: f/2.eight: DOF: zero.four mm f/sixteen: DOF: 2.24 mm f/2.eight: DOF: zero.048 mm f/sixteen: DOF: zero.27 mm As shall be mentioned later, it might not be a good suggestion to cease down the lens to f/sixteen at a magnification of 5×, because the picture high quality would endure from the results of diffraction.
Broad-angle lenses can be utilized to offer extremely artistic shut-up photos, however they are often tough to make use of. For instance, a 28 mm lens can be simply three.5 cm (1.5 in.) away from the topic at a magnification of 14 , requiring very exact positioning of the digital camera. Nonetheless, the extensive angle of view does imply that you’ll embrace rather more of the background within the picture, exhibiting a plant in its habitat.
A regular lens is the one that almost all carefully matches the human eye by way of area of view. For a full-body sensor it is going to be 50 mm focal size, whereas for an APS-C-measurement sensor will probably be within the area of 35 mm. Most lens producers make customary-size macro lenses, such because the Nikon 60 mm Micro-Nikkor.
It is likely to be thought that lengthy telephoto lenses would have little use for shut-up and macro images, however in reality they are often extraordinarily helpful for photographing inaccessible topics, or protecting an affordable distance from a nervous topic similar to a dragonfly. Many telephoto lenses will focus fairly shut with none additional equipment, however they can be utilized at the side of shut-up supplementary lenses or extension tubes to allow them to focus nearer to the topic. Many insect photographers routinely use focal lengths of 200 mm or extra to offer working distance from the topic, whereas plant photographers use lengthy lenses to isolate flowers from their backgrounds, for instance. Zoom Lens A zoom lens, or variable focal-size lens, encompasses a spread of focal lengths inside it. Typical zoom lenses ranges are 35–70, 70–200, and 200–four hundred mm. They’re typically referred to by their zoom vary—for instance, a 70–210 mm lens is a three× zoom. Trendy zooms now have ranges as much as 10×, corresponding to a 28–300 mm. Many zooms have a macro setting that gives magnification of 12x and even 1×, relying on the mannequin, although the macro setting might solely be doable at one specific focal size inside the vary.
Teleconverters (or extenders) are optical gadgets that match between the lens and the digital camera physique, and amplify the picture from the lens by a certain amount. They’re most frequently utilized by wildlife photographers, requiring longer focal- size lenses, however they do have a use in shut-up and macro images: They improve the focal size and thereby improve the working distance to the topic. They’re obtainable in varied strengths: 1.four×, 1.7×, 2×, and three×. A 300 mm lens, hooked up to a 1.four× converter, turns into successfully a 420 mm focal size, whereas a 200 mm lens hooked up to a 2× converter turns into successfully a four hundred mm focal size. I usually use a 1.four× converter with my one hundred and five mm f/2.eight Micro-Nikkor VR lens, giving a mix of one hundred fifty mm f/four. This will increase the working distance for a given magnification and will increase the utmost magnification to 1.four×. The quantity of sunshine reaching the sensor is decreased by the converter. A 1.four× converter reduces the quantity of sunshine by one cease, and a 2× converter reduces the quantity of sunshine by two stops. Thus, a 300 mm f/four lens, when used
Different Lens Varieties
Whereas the dialogue up to now has handled typical digicam lenses, it’s doable to make use of different sorts for shut-up and macro pictures, particularly these designed to be used in enlargers. As a result of enlarger lenses are designed to work finest near their topic (i.e., the unfavorable within the enlarger) they will make glorious macro lenses when connected to extension bellows. Most enlarger lenses have a forty two mm Leica-sort screw thread, and adapters can be found from specialist suppliers to transform this thread to digicam bayonet fittings similar to Canon and Nikon. Different lenses to attempt can be these from outdated cine cameras, which normally have a “C”-mount screw thread, for which, once more, adapters can be found.
Perspective Management (Tilt and Shift) Lenses
These lenses had been designed initially for architectural pictures, to allow photographers to realize management of perspective. The lens might be tilted in both a vertical or horizontal aircraft relative to the digital camera, or shifted up and down or sideways. These actions are much like these present in massive- format sheet movie cameras utilized by studio and architectural photographers for rising depth of discipline or correcting perspective distortions. The lean motion can be utilized to extend depth of discipline inside a picture with out stopping down the lens. The speculation relies on the Scheimpflug Precept, which states that a picture can have optimum sharpness when a aircraft by way of the lens panel, picture sensor, and topic intersect at a standard level. At the moment, a number of fashions can be found with macro capabilities, together with the Nikon PC-E Nikkor eighty five mm and the Canon TS-E90 mm. The quantity of tilt and shift is slightly restricted, to forestall vignetting of the picture, so it will not be potential to deliver all of a topic into sharp focus utilizing swing and tilt actions alone—you should still must cease down the aperture as properly. Macro images may be completed by mounting a lens in reverse, in entrance of a usually mounted lens of larger focal size, utilizing a macro coupler which screws into the entrance filter threads of each lenses. This technique permits most cameras to keep up the complete perform of digital and mechanical communication with the usually mounted lens, for options reminiscent of open-aperture metering. The magnification ratio is calculated by dividing the focal size of the usually mounted lens by the focal size of the reversed lens (e.g., when an 18 mm lens is reverse mounted on a 300 mm lens the replica ratio is sixteen:1). Using computerized focus will not be advisable if the primary lens isn’t of the interior-focusing sort, as the additional weight of the reverse-mounted lens may harm the autofocus mechanism. Working distance is considerably lower than the primary lens.